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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 19(3); 2008 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 2008;19(3): 322-332.
DNA Microarray Analysis of Transcriptional Responses in HepG2 Cells with Induced Paraquat Resistance
Hoon Kim, Suk Woo Lee, Si Wook Kim
1Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongjoo, Korea. nichekh2000@chungbuk.ac.kr
2Department of Chest surgery, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongjoo, Korea.
To date, paraquat poisoning has almost universally resulted in unfavorable outcomes, and it has become a big issue in clinical toxicology. Current efforts to overcome its toxicity have focused on drugs with anti-oxidant capacity such as ascorbic acid in order to combat over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by paraquat radicals, which are mainly induced by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Unfortunately, this strategy of treatment has not yielded satisfactory results. In search of a new approach to cope with PQ toxicity, we developed an in vitro culture model of cells resistant to lethal doses of PQ, and we then investigated resistance mechanisms using DNA microarray technology, a tool for simultaneously measuring a number of gene expression changes.
This experiment was conducted in vitro using the hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line (HepG2) to assay xenobitotics metabolism. We induced resistant of these cells to up to 100 uM PQ by treating with escalating doses of PQ for about 5 months. Cytotoxicity was studied using the MTT method, and optical density was measured at 540 nm using an ELISA reader. We examined morphological changes in cells after drug treatment using an inverted microscope, and we investigated gene expression profiles in control and resistant cells by use of DNA microarray.
Results of MTT assays indicated that resistant cells showed relatively high survivals against a 100 mM dose, but that the control group had zero percents of survival at a 1 mM dose. In the comparing gene expression levels between the control group and the resistant group, 6,717 genes found to be differentially expressed. In the analysis of anti-apoptosis genes in particular, the resistant group showed more expression of genes with anti-apoptotic functions than did the control group. In examining the expression of cytochrome P450 genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and PQ radical induction, expression of the cytochrome P450 1B1 gene was significantly higher in the resistant group than in the control group.
Although cytochrome P450 is known to be responsible for redox cycling of PQ as an electron transferor, this study suggest that up-regulation of the cytochrome P450 1B1 gene can corelate with PQ resistance. Therefore, induction of cytochrome P450 1B1 can be a new therapeutic approach to reduce PQ toxicity through actual PQ degradation, rather than simply through neutralization of ROS.
Key words: Paraquat, DNA Microarray, Cytochrome P450
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