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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 20(6); 2009 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 2009;20(6): 620-628.
Feasibility of Extracorporeal Life Support for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients who are Unresponsive to Conventional Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Sung Woo Moon, Sung Woo Lee, Jae Seung Shin, Jae Ho Jung, Won Jae Jung, Kwang Ja Kim, Yun Sik Hong, Jan Kurt Horn
1Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. kuedlee@korea.ac.kr
2Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
3Department of Surgery, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.
To determine the feasibility of using extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who are unresponsive to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques.
This study was a case series of consecutive nontraumatic OHCA patients aged 18~75 years who received ECLS in the emergency department (ED) of a university teaching hospital. We analyzed outcomes, physiologic effects, and complications associated with ECLS. To compare outcomes of ECLS and conventional CPR, we selected a conventional CPR subgroup, those who were aged 18 to 75 years, who experienced cardiac arrest with pre-hospital CPR, who had no terminal illness, and who had CPR for more than 40 minutes.
Of 14 attempts to initiate ECLS, 13 patients received ECLS and one patient failed catheterization. Nine patients achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) more than 20 minutes later; 4 of the 9? patients survived more than 24 hours; 2 patients were successfully weaned off ECLS; 1 patient was discharged alive without neurologic complications. Median (minimum-maximum) duration of CPR before ECLS (pre-hospital and in-hospital) was 84(41 to 167) minutes. Blood gas parameters obtained 3 hours after the start of ECLS were significantly improved compared with those obtained pre-ECLS. Four patients who arrested from acute myocardial infarction received intervention as during ECLS support to correct the causes of the arrest. Serious complications of ECLS causing mortality were catheterization failure, intracranial hemorrhage, and massive hemothorax. The ECLS group showed a higher ROSC rate than patients who received conventional CPR without ECLS (64.3% vs. 7.1%, p=0.002).
ECLS in the ED is feasible for OHCA patients who are unresponsive to prolonged CPR. ECLS provides a bridge to evaluation and definitive care in refractory OHCA by improving early hemodynamic and physiologic status. Earlier application of ECLS and reduction of complications associated with ECLS may improve the survival of OHCA patients.
Key words: Heart arrest, Extracorporeal circulation, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
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