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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 30(6); 2019 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 2019;30(6): 501-511.
전동 및 수동 구급 침상을 이용한 119구급활동의 신체역학적 부하 비교 무작위 마네킨 시뮬레이션 연구
송성욱1 , 강명신2 , 강현정2 , 박진형3, 최명재4 , 홍기정4 , 신상도4
1제주대학교 의학전문대학원 응급의학교실
2서울대학교 의생명연구원 응급의료연구실
3서울의료원 응급의학과
4서울대학교병원 응급의학과
Biomechanical demands comparison in 119 emergency medical services activities when using manual and powered stretcher carts: a scenario-based randomized cross-over simulation study
Sung Wook Song1 , Myeong Sin Kang2 , Hyun Jeong Kang2 , Jin Hyung Park3, Myeong Jae Choi4 , Ki Jeong Hong4 , Sang Do Shin4
1Department of Emergency Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, Korea
2Laboratory of Emergency Medical Services, Seoul National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea
3Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
4Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence  Sung Wook Song ,Tel: 064-717-1924, Fax: 064-717-1131, Email: sungwook78@gmail.com,
Received: February 24, 2019; Revised: September 23, 2019   Accepted: October 24, 2019.  Published online: December 31, 2019.
The purpose of this study was to compare the biomedical demands between a manual stretcher cart (Manual Cot) and a novel powered stretcher cart (Power Cot) during simulated routine stretcher handling activities.
A randomized cross-over design mannequin simulation study was planned. Fourteen participants sequentially performed routine stretcher handling tasks, including unloading, lowering, raising, and loading tasks with the Manual Cot and Power Cot. The biomechanical workload of each participant was assessed by measuring the muscle activity of four muscles (bilateral L4/5 erector spinae and rectus femoris) through an 8-channel electromyogram (EMG) measurement system by attaching the surface EMG. The time required to perform each task was measured, and after the end of the simulation, the participants were given a subjective questionnaire consisting of seven items (five-point Likert scale) on the usefulness and usability of the two stretcher carts.
Fourteen participants, six males and eight females, performed four routine stretcher handling scenarios. The median total task times for the Manual Cot and Power Cot were similar (95 seconds; range, 49-105 vs. 94 seconds; range, 84-140; P=0.063). For the lowering, raising, and loading tasks, the effects of Power Cot were significantly lower than the normalized muscle voluntary contraction (%) cumulative sum of the back or thigh (P<0.05). Compared to Manual Cot, the use of Power Cot resulted in a decrease in total muscle activity of 18.0-63.5% in the back muscles and 6.7-83.9% in the thigh muscles during the task simulation. The participants preferred the Power Cot in terms of usefulness in subjective perceptions.
This simulation study identified that the Power Cot reduced the physical stress of emergency medical services workers without any significant performance time delay when performing stretcher-handling activities.
Key words: Stretchers; Emergency medical services; Occupational injuries; Ergonomics; Electromyography
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