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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 9(1); 1998 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 1998;9(1): 85-91.
A Clinical Study on Diabetic Keteoacidosis
Jung Bae Park, Jong Kun Kim, Jeong Heon Lee, Kang Suk Seo, Young Kook Yun
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) is serious acute metabolic complication and the most important cause of high morbidity and mortality of diabetes. The object of this study is to examine the clinical characteristics of patients with DKA who had a prior history of diabetes or not. METHOD: Authors reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 49 cases adimitted to Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 1991 to June 1997 with a diagnosis of DKA and classified cases as type I, type II and newly diagnosed diabetics according to prior history of diabetes.
1. Of 49 cases of DKA, 24(49%) were classified as type I, 17(35%) as type II from data available in the medical records, and 8(16%) had DKA as the initial manifestation of the disease. 2. The male to female ratio was 0.5 : 1 in type I, 1.1 : 1 in type II and 1.7 : 1 in newly diagnosed diabetics, and the mean age was 24.4 in type I, 57.9 in type II and 23.9 years old in newly diagnosed diabetics. 3. The mean duration between initial diagnosis of diabetes and the occurrence of DKA was 2.6 in type I and 6.9 years in type II diabetes. The occurrence of DKA within 2 years of initial diagnosis of diabetes was 54% in type I and 18% in type II diabetes, but the occurrence of DKA after 5 years of initial diagnosis of diabetes was 17% in type I and 47% in type II diabetes. 4. The precipitating factors of DKA were identified in 88% in type I, 76% in type II and 38% in newly diagnosed diabetics, and the most common precipitating factor was omission of treatment in both type I and type II(type I: 56%, type II: 35%). 5. The altered mental status was correlated with increased osmolality (p<0.05), but not with other laboratory values such as pH, bicabonate, glucose, anion gap and dehydration status(p>0.05).
It is necessary to conduct early aggressive evaluation for early diagnosis and proper treatment of DKA, because DKA occurs in patients with prior history of type II diabetes and without prior diabetic history as well as patients with prior history of type I diabetes.
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