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J Korean Soc Emerg Med > Volume 14(1); 2003 > Article
Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine 2003;14(1): 50-55.
Clinical Analysis of Hyponatremia in Emergency Patients
Byeong Guk Lee, Kyoung In Yum, Jung Mi Moon, Joon Sun Wi, Kyoung Woon Jeoung, Byeong Jo Chun, Tag Heo, Yong Il Min
Department of Emergency Medicine, Chonnam National University, Medical School, Gwangju, Korea. minyi@chonnam.ac.kr
ABSTRACT
PURPOSE:
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance encountered in the hospital, there have been few studies about the clinical characteristics of hyponatremia in emergency patients. This study was performed to evaluate the causes and the initial symptoms of hyponatremia in emergency patients, the relationship between their ages and their initial symptoms and the relationship between the causes and the recovery time.
METHODS:
A total of 42 patients with hyponatremia, who were treated in the Emergency Department of Chonnam National University Hospital from 2000 to 2001, were studied by chart review.
RESULTS:
The initial symptoms were generalized weakness (33.3%), seizure (28.6%), mental change (21.6%), confusion (9.5%), dizziness (4.8%), and non-specific (2.4%). There was a significant difference in the initial symptoms between children and older. The initial symptom for younger patients was usually seizure. The most common causes of hyponatremia were dehydration and sodium loss (52.4%), other causes were hypothyroidism (11.9%), SIADH (7.1%), heart failure (7.1%), adrenal insufficiency (4.8%), polydypsia (4.8%), CRF (2.4%), nephrotic syndrome (2.4%) and unidentified causes (7.1%). There were significant differences in the recovery times among the causes of hyponatremia.
CONCLUSION:
The initial symptoms of hyponatremia in emergency patients were usually generalized weakness in older patients and seizure in the young. There were significant differences in the recovery times among the causes of hyponatremia. There were many more incidences of hypovolemic hyponatremia of emergency patients than normovolemic hyponatremia.
Key words: Hyponatremia, Emergency department
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